Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology

ISBN-10: 002348991X
ISBN-13: 9780023489914
Authors: Frank E. Hagan
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Author bio:

     Frank E. Hagan is a native of the North Side of Pittsburgh and has earned degrees at Gannon, Maryland and Case Western Reserve. He is the Director of the James V. Kinnane Graduate Program in Administration of Justice and is the author of eight books. These are Deviance and the Family (with Marvin B. Sussman), Introduction to Criminology (7th edition), Crime Types and Criminals , Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology (8th edition), Essentials of Research Methods in Criminal Justice , Political Crime , White Collar Deviance (with David Simon), and The Language of Research (with Pamela Tontodonato).     He is also the author or coauthor of many journal articles and…    


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Product details

Binding: Hardcover Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR Number of pages: 496 Weight: 2.486 lbs. Language: English

Table of contents

Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods: Theory and Method
Scientific Research in Criminal Justice
Common Sense and Nonsense
Why Study Research Methods in Criminal Justice?
The Emergence of Science and Criminal Justice
The Probabilistic Nature of Science
Proper Conduct of Critical Inquiry
Approaches to Theory and Method in Criminal Justice
Merton's "Matthew Effect" in Science
The Paradigm Shift in Policing
Pure Versus Applied Research
The Project on Human Development
Crime Analysis: Applied Criminal Justice Research
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Researchese: the Language of Research
Dependent and Independent Variables
Examples of the Research Process
Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders
General Steps in Empirical Research in Criminal Justice
Problem Formulation: Selection of Research Problem
Problem Formulation: Specification of Research Problem
Feminist Perspectives and Research Methods
The World Wide Web (WWW)
Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
Ethical Horror Stories
Biomedical Examples
Social Science Examples
AIDS Research in Africa and Asia: Is It Ethical?
Researcher Fraud and Plagiarism
Legendary Research Scams
The Researcher's Role
Research Targets in Criminal Justice
Ethics and Professionalism
Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
History of Federal Regulation of Research
The Belmont Report
Institutional Review Boards
Research Activities Exempt from HHS Review
National Institute of Justice's Human Subject Protection Requirements
Confidentiality of Criminal Justice Research
Codes of Research Ethics of the ACJS and the ASC
Ethical Issues in Criminology/Criminal Justice Research
Avoid Research That May Harm Respondents
Honor Commitments to Respondents and Respect Reciprocity
Exercise Objectivity and Professional Integrity in Performing and Reporting Research
Protect Confidentiality and Privacy of Respondents
Ethical Problems
The Brajuha Case (Weinstein Decision)
The Ofshe Case
The Hutchinson Case
Additional Ethical Concerns
Avoiding Ethical Problems
Research Design: The Experimental Model and Its Variations
The Experimental Model
Research Design in a Nutshell
Resolution of the Causality Problem
Rival Causal Factors
Internal Factors: Variables Related to Internal Validity
Statistical Regression
Selection Bias
Experimental Mortality
Selection--Maturation Interaction
External Factors: Variables Related to External Validity
Testing Effects
Selection Bias
Reactivity or Awareness of Being Studied
Multiple-Treatment Interferences
Related Rival Causal Factors
Hawthorne Effect
Halo Effect
Post Hoc Error
Placebo Effect
Other Rival Causal Factors in Criminal Justice Field Experiments
Diffusion of Treatment
Compensatory Equalization of Treatment
Local History
Experimental Designs
The Classic Experimental Design
Some Criminal Justice Examples of the Classic Experimental Design
Candid Camera
Scared Straight
Community Policing
The Kansas City Gun Experiment
Other Experimental Designs
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
Solomon Four-Group Design
Preexperimental Designs
One-Group Ex Post Facto Design
One-Group Before-After Design
Two-Group Ex Post Facto Design
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs
The Cycle of Violence and Victims of Child Abuse
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Time-Series Designs
Multiple Interrupted Time-Series Designs
Counterbalanced Designs
Some Other Criminal Justice Examples of Variations of the Experimental Model
The Provo and Silverlake Experiments
Evaluations of Shock Incarceration
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
The Experiment As a Data-Gathering Strategy
Advantages of Experiments
Disadvantages of Experiments
An Introduction to Alternative Data-Gathering Strategies and the Special Case of Uniform Crime Reports
Alternative Data-Gathering Strategies
Social Surveys
Participant Observation
Life History and Case Studies
Unobtrusive Measures
Applied Research: Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
The Special Case of Uniform Crime Reports
The Crime Index
Crime Rate
Cautions in the Use of UCR Data
Factors Affecting the UCR
Related UCR Issues
The Crime Dip
UCR Redesign
National Incident-Based Reporting System
The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
NIBRS versus UCR
Sampling and Survey Research: Questionnaires
Types of Sampling
Probability Samples
Nonprobability Samples
Crime Profiling
Sample Size
Survey Research
Some Guidelines for Questionnaire Construction
Questionnaire Wording
Organization of the Questionnaire
Mail Surveys
Advantages of Mail Surveys
Disadvantages of Mail Surveys
Ways of Eliminating Disadvantages in Mail Surveys
Offering Remuneration
Attractive Format
Sponsorship and Endorsements
Shortened Format
Good Timing
Self-Reported Measures of Crime
Some Problems With Self-Report Surveys
Strengths of Self-Report Surveys
Use of Other Data
Use of Other Observers
Use of Polygraph
"Known Group" Validation
Use of Lie Scales
Measures of Internal Consistency
Use of Interviews
Internet Surveys
Advantages of Internet Surveys
Disadvantages of Internet Surveys
Procedures in Internet Surveys
Survey Research: Interviews and Telephone Surveys
Types of Interviews
Advantages of Interviews
Disadvantages of Interviews
Interviewing Aids and Variations
Public Opinion Polls
General Procedures in Interviews
Training and Orientation Session
Arranging the Interview
Demeanor of Interviewer
Administration of the Structured Interview
The Exit
Recording the Interview
Telephone Surveys
Advantages and Prospects of Telephone Surveys
Disadvantages of Telephone Surveys
Computers in Survey Research
Random Digit Dialing
Techniques Employed in Telephone Surveys
Victim Surveys in Criminal Justice
National Crime Victimization Survey
Panel Design
A Comparison of UCR, Ncvs, and Self-Report Data
Some Problems in Victim Surveys
Cost of Large Samples
False Reports
Mistaken Reporting
Poor Memory
Sampling Bias
Overreporting and Underreporting
Interviewer Effects
Coding Unreliability and Mechanical Error
Problems Measuring Certain Crimes
Benefits of Victim Surveys
A Defense of Victim Surveys
Controlling for Error in Victim Surveys
Reverse Record Checks
Victim Surveys: A Balanced View
Community Crime Victimization Survey Software
Redesign of the National Crime Victimization Survey
The Redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey
Participant Observation and Case Studies
A Critique of Experiments and Surveys
Verbal Reports versus Behavior
A Defense of Quantitative Research
Participant Observation
Types of Participant Observation
Characteristics of Participant Observation
Objectivity in Research
"Going Native"
General Procedures in Participant Observation
Field Notes
Caution in Use of Other Recording Methods
Tips on Participant Observation
Gaining Access
American Skinheads
Announcement of Intentions
Reciprocity and Protection of Identity
Concern for Accuracy
Examples of Participant Observation
Islands in the Streets
This Thing of Darkness: A Participant Observation Study of Idaho Christian Patriots
Advantages of Participant Observation
Disadvantages of Participant Observation
Case Studies
Life History/Oral History
Some Examples of Case Studies
Journalistic Field Studies
Single-Subject Designs
Unobtrusive Measures, Secondary Analysis, and the Uses of Official Statistics
Major Types of Unobtrusive Methods
Physical Trace Analysis
Use of Available Data and Archives
Secondary Analysis
Personal Documents and Biographies
Examples of Secondary Analysis
Automated Pin Mapping: Applied Criminal Justice Research Using GIS for Crime Analysis
Street Gang Crime in Chicago
Limitations of Official Data
Measuring Hidden Populations
Historical and Archival Data
Content Analysis
Content Analysis by Computer
Applied Criminal Justice Research: Hotspot Analysis
Sources of Existing Data
X-Files at the Federal Bureau of Investigation
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
Disguised Observation
Advantages of Unobtrusive Measures
Disadvantages of Unobtrusive Measures
Validity, Reliability, and Triangulated Strategies
Error in Research
Reasons for Lack of Validation Studies in Criminal Justice
Ways of Determining Validity
Face Validity
Content Validity
Construct Validity
Pragmatic Validity
Convergent-Discriminant Validation/Triangulation
Multiple Forms
Split-Half Technique
Mythical Numbers
Phantom Army of Addicts
Adam (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program)
Other Examples of Research Validation
Scaling and Index Construction
Levels of Measurement
Score Yourself General Attitude/Knowledge Survey
Scaling Procedures
Arbitrary Scales
The Uniform Crime Report as an Arbitrary Scale
Attitude Scales
Thurstone Scales
Likert Scales
Guttman Scales
Other Scaling Procedures
Q Sort
Semantic Differential
Other Variations
Crime Seriousness Scales
Sellin-Wolfgang Index
Types of Crime Seriousness Scales
Prediction Scales
The Salient Factor Score
Greenwood's "Rand Seven-Factor Index"
Career Criminal Programs
Advantages of Scales
Disadvantages of Scales
Data Analysis: Coding, Tabulation, and Simple Data Presentation
Variables List
Data Management
Coder Monitoring
Keyboard Entry
Data Verification
Simple Data Presentation
The Frequency Distribution
Graphic Presentations
Pie Charts
Bar Graphs
Frequency Polygons (Line Charts)
Crime Clocks
Table Reading
Why Bother with Tables?
What to Look for in a Table
Steps in Reading a Table
Summary of Table 11.3
How to Construct Tables
Presentation of Complex Data
General Rules for Percentaging a Table
Improper Percentaging
Lying with Statistics
Data Analysis: A User's Guide to Statistics
Why Study Statistics?
Types of Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency for a Simple Distribution
Measures of Dispersion
Standard Deviation ([sigma])
Standard Deviation Units (Z Scores)
Chi-Square (X[superscript 2])
Calculation of Chi-Square
Chi-Square-Based Measures of Association
Phi Coefficient ([phi]) and Phi-Square ([phi superscript 2])
Contingency Coefficient (C)
Cramer's V
Nature and Types of Statistics
Nonparametric Statistics
Null Hypothesis
Tests of Significance
The t Test (Difference of Means Test)
Types of t Tests
Anova (Analysis of Variance)
Calculation of ANOVA
Other Measures of Relationship
The Concept of Relationship
Correlation Coefficient (Pearson's r)
Interpretation of Pearson's r
Calculation of Pearson's r
Statistical Significance of Pearson's r
Ordinal Level Measures of Relationship
Spearman's Rho (r[subscript s])
Interpretation of Rho
Multivariate Analysis
Partial Correlation
Multiple Correlation and Regression
Statistical Software
Caveat Emptor
The Ecological Fallacy
Policy Analysis and Evaluation Research
Policy Analysis
Evaluation Research
Policy Experiments
Policy Analysis: The Case of the National Institute of Justice Research Program
NIJ Mission Statement
NIJ Research Priorities
A Systems Model of Evaluation Research
Types of Evaluation Research
Will the Findings Be Used?
Is the Project Evaluable?
Who Can Do This Work?
Steps in Evaluation Research
Problem Formulation
Design of Instruments
Research Design
Data Collection
Data Analysis
What Works in Criminal Justice?
Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising
Obstacles to Evaluation Research
Researchers and Host Agencies
How to Write the Research Report
Table of Random Numbers
Statistics: An Addendum to Chapter 12
Measures of Central Tendency for Grouped Data
Standard Deviations for Grouped Data
Raw Score Approach
Deviation Score Approach
Calculation of Anova
Regression Calculations
A Test of Significance for Gamma
Answers to Pop Quizzes in Chapter 12
Normal Curve Areas
Distribution of Chi-Square (X[superscript 2])
Proposal Writing and Evaluation
Proposal Writing
Funding Agencies
Basic Elements of a Proposal
NIJ Proposal Format and Content
Evaluation of Research Proposals
NIJ Evaluation of Proposals
Name Index
Subject Index